A bone marrow transplant is a procedure performed to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow stem cells with healthy bone marrow stem cells. The procedure involves extracting the healthy stem cells, filtering those cells, and giving them back, either to the donor himself, or to another person(the recipient). The goal of BMT is to transfuse healthy stem cells into a person, after his or her own unhealthy bone marrow has been treated to kill the abnormal cells.
Types of BMT
There are different types of bone marrow transplants depending on who the donor is. The different types of BMT include the following:
Autologous bone marrow transplant: It is defined as “taken from an individual’s own cells”, where the patient has donated stem cells to be used for their own transplant.
Siblings (Matched related donor/ MRD) - Brothers/sisters are the best choice as donors, provided that their HLA type matches with that of the recipient.
Parent/Children (Haploidentical stem cell transplant): A haploid-identical match is when the donor is a parent and the genetic match is at least half identical to the recipient's.
Unrelated bone marrow transplants (UBMT) or matched unrelated donor (MUD): The HLA matched marrow or stem cells are from an unrelated donor, who has been found through bone marrow registries.
Umbilical cord blood transplant: Stem cells are taken from an umbilical cord immediately after delivery of an infant. The stem cells are tested, typed, counted, and frozen until they are needed for a transplant.
Diseases that can be treated are :
Malignant disease :
Relapsed Hodgkins Disease
Relapsed Non Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL)
Relapsed Ewings Sarcoma
Metastatic Ewings Sarcoma
Metastatic Germ cell tumors
Medulloblastoma, other brain tumors
Other solid malignancy
High Risk ALL
Relapsed or Refractory AML/ALL
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN)
Non-Malignant disease :
Severe Autoimmune Diseases
Severe Immunodeficiency disorders
Inherited Metabolic disorders
Bone Marrow Transplant Donors :
For an Allogeneic Transplant, a suitable (HLA matched) donor is a must requirement.
What is HLA typing?
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing is used to match a suitable donor for bone marrow transplant. The best transplant outcome is obtained when a patient’s HLA and the donor’s HLA closely match.
Who can be the ideal donor?
The best possible chance to get the HLA typing match is from siblings. In about 30% of the cases the patient will get a good match from their sisters / brothers. If the patient is not getting suitable HLA match with their siblings then the next possibility is the half matched HLA from their parents or children. Half of the HLA markers come from the mother and half from father. It is unlikely that other family members HLA will match the patient.
How to find donor outside the family member?
If the patient does not have suitable match in the family, then transplant team may look for an unrelated donor. In this case stem cell has to be procured from domestic/ international registry.
Is there any cost involved in preliminary Donor search from the registry?
No, there is no charge involved for a preliminary donor search. If a suitable donor is found, only then the patient has to borne the cost for Stem cell procurement which has to be paid to the donor registry.
What are the kind of preparation required for the donor?
Once the potential donor is identified then he or she will undergo several tests. Tests related to his or her health will be done to determine the extent of the match.
Once a match for a patient needing a bone marrow transplant is found, then stem cells will be collected either by a bone marrow harvest or peripheral blood stem cell collection. Of the two, peripheral blood stem cell donations are now more common 95%, which is painless.
Donor has to take growth factor injection 2-5 days before his stem cell donation. Donor has to admitted and hospitalised for 1 -3 days.
What is the Cost of BMT in India?
The cost of Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) procedure in India is in the range of USD 45000 - 60000. Since there are many variables in the procedure it is difficult to predict an accurate cost for BMT procedure. This is the reason why we give a range for the treatment.
Our hospitals are located in the northern part of the country specially in the NCR region within a distance of 20-50 kms from the New Delhi airport. Our hospitals are super specialty in the fields of Neurosurgery, Cardiology, Joint Replacement, Cancer Care, Liver and Kidney Transplants and many other brances of medicine. All our hospitals offer quality treatment and are accreditated by NABH or JCI.
We have the latest MRI, CT Scan, Digital X-Ray, Bone Densitometry (DEXA), Mammography, Ultrasound, Colour Doppler which gives us the diagnostic confidence for providing the right treatment.
Modular fully equipped Operation Theatres with Computer Navigation and C-Arm backed by a state of art ICU helps us in providing world class treatment to our patients.
Our team of doctors include some of the best names from the Indian Medical Fraternity. Dr V.S.Mehta, Dr Vikas Kathuria, Dr Sandeep Vaish in Neurosurgery, Dr Sumita Singh in Breast and Piles, Dr Mukesh Jain, Dr Anubhav Jain, Dr Subhash Jangid and Dr Praveen Tittal in Joints, Dr Priyanjana Sharma in ENT, Dr Kaushal Yadav in Cancer Surgery, Dr Vikram Singh in GI Laparoscopic Surgery, Dr Nutan Jain, Dr Vandana Jain and Dr Renu Yadav in Obs, Gynae and Infertility are some of the key doctors with us.
These patients from different parts of the world came to India for different treatments. In this video they are sharing their experiences about the doctors, hospitals and the treatment which they got from GNH during their stay in India.
This Omani Patient was advised to undergo amputation of his leg in his home country. He came to India in the hope of saving his leg from Amputation. Here the patient and his son are sharing their experience about India.
Kim Brian from California is a great man with an amazing sense of humour. Lying on the hospital bed, ready to be wheeled into the operation theatre and he is cracking jokes. Must watch video if you are planning to come to India for treatment.